Mathew Carley Talks On Hayai Broadband

Mathew Carley Talks On Hayai BroadbandHayai Broadband India, aimed to be fastest ISP of India is with the status of coming-very-soon. We talked with Mathew Carley, Hayai Broadband ( is whose brain child. He is very warm and gave us some moments answering our questions.

Q. Dear Mathew, first tell us about yourself as we are seeing you as a young, energetic entrepreneur, who is connected to youth of India via various social sites and forums.

It was a happy accident which is preceded by quite a long story, so I’ll keep it short. I grew up in New Zealand, and I’ve always been in the business of “making things easier” for people. About the time I turned 20, I packed up and headed to Europe. After spending 4 years living between France, Finland and Japan, in 2008 I set my sights on India.
When I landed at Mumbai (coincidentally on the night of the terror attacks), I didn’t have any real agenda – I was only supposed to go for 3 months before returning to Finland. But sometime in January 2009, I decided to cancel my return ticket and find something to do – I didn’t know what, but that’s never concerned me before.

Q. How did you come with an idea like Hayai Broadband in India?

One thing had irked me throughout my time in the country: India is the BPO of the western world, yet it’s broadband is rubbish. One day I saw an ad for Reliance Netconnect+ which offered it’s 3.1mbit/s wireless service for (at the time) Rs1800 with a 10GB fair usage policy, and I thought “geez, that’s a bit pricey, surely I can do better”. After a bit of research, I discovered that, with the cost of base-stations, bandwidth, licensing, taxes and whatnot, I could.

From there, I researched for about 3 months EVERYTHING I could find regarding operating a telco in India (and I still know only a fraction of the overall situation) – legal issues, last-mile, cablewalas, regulations, existing networks, the topography of the city including areas of interest and eventually I was able to cobble together a rough spreadsheet detailing how much *I* might be able to sell the same product for – and even with a wired service, it was less than Reliance, so I decided to pursue the idea.

Q. Tell us about Hayai India (company ownership, licenses, operation areas, infrastructure, tariff plans )

Company ownership:

Myself and 3 other directors, 4 primary shareholders and some other details I can’t make public at this time with regards to how we work with our upstream providers, licenses and funding. Because of the regulations, I can’t be CTO of the company, even if I wanted to be (must be an Indian citizen). I’m not much of a desk-jockey, so CEO and CFO roles are going to others, and so I’ve put myself in the COO position, though naturally, I still call the shots.

Operation areas:
Once the launch has happened in Mumbai and that is all actually working, there is strong demand for us in pretty much every major centre – but in addition to that, we would focus a lot on building to areas that are underserved and/or have currently got little competition. While the idea started out as being a Broadband operator, we will be including Voice and IPTV services of course, so ideally what will happen is that we’ll end up offering triple-play services to take advantage of the network we’re putting in.

The idea has been, from scratch, to build fiber all the way to the user. Since everything is all-new, the capital expenditure as compared to DSL isn’t much different once all things are taken in to account, but most importantly, fiber allows us upgrade paths which copper does not: VDSL does up to 100mbit/s through extremely short amounts of copper – and even though there are some new DSL technologies coming out which are giving around 600-700mbit/s, we can already push 1Gbit/s over fiber with potentially even 10Gbit/s later on if we want to.

Considering the costs of digging, we are trying to come up with new ways to get fiber to people more cheaply – in NZ we’ve just started exploring the possibility of using the sewers, since, we can lay fiber without any interruption to things that are happening above ground, all thanks to a few specialized robots. They’re using this technique in Italy, Japan, France, Scandinavia, Australia, UK and the USA that I know of, and I’m hoping we’ll be able to use it in all urban areas (even in India) because I believe it will substantially reduce the cost of building the network.

Tariff plans:
Our aim is to be the fastest ISP in India – this is probably what I would call “the easy part”. Doing that while maintaining a reasonable price – that’s a bit more tricky. Tariffs are changing everywhere, so naturally we’re keeping an eye on all of our competitors – large and small – to ensure that we can respond to their offerings and maintain our competitive edge. Keeping this in mind, we haven’t launched yet in India and as such I’ve recently taken the proposed tariff schemes offline until we are properly ready to launch and we can set the prices in stone, but part of my aim for this continues to be that we should like to see European Broadband pricing in India: we’re almost there, but not quite – for reasons I’ll explain in the final question.

Mathew Carley

Mathew Carley

If I had a chance to travel back in time and speak to myself 2 years ago, I would probably tell myself I was insane, as there seem to be enough regulations surrounding the running of a telco/ISP in India for Indian citizens, let-alone a foreign citizen.

It hasn’t been the most fun experience of my life, and as much as I hate to say it, I probably would have had an easier time of starting in Pakistan for a variety of reasons: company formation is quicker and easier, ISP license acquisition is quicker and easier, the local loop is unbundled and so on.

Q. Tell us about Hayai Broadband in other countries.

Hayai NZ was formed in August 2010 after I returned to Newzealand to get my Indian paperwork done.

The reason I’m tacking NZ as well is because, in NZ, everyone uses the same last-mile loop which is leased from Telecom. Everyone’s pricing is basically the same, the speeds are generally all the same and there is not much differentiation between providers. Now that unbundling has started happening, some providers are building their own last-mile, but even then it’s still basically an extension of the existing infrastructure.

There is limited work going on in the fiber arena, although now the NZ government is going to be building a nationwide FTTH network over the next 10 years – we expect to be using and becoming a part of creating this new infrastructure, but we are still discussing with the consortium building the government network if and how we can go about getting services ready NOW, since the government project won’t start until next year.

Hayai NZ may also get in to mobile if it can, because the situation with mobile services (voice and data) is that, even if the quality is good enough, mobile tariffs in NZ are extremely expensive.

As for Hayai Pacific, this has only been incepted in the last month due to my discussions with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Vanuatu – but we’re hoping to move in to that region as well. Eventually, we expect to become a worldwide company, but I expect to be focusing on “the other 3 billion”. While there are a few companies focusing on these markets in different parts of the world (including but not limited to Digicel, i3 Networks, LIME, and what used to be Zain), based on preliminary research, the services are not as good as what we see in (for example) Europe – so our USP then is to bring the type of services you’d find in Europe to these people for the same sort of pricing that existing players are offering – or less.

Q. What is the expected date for Hayai launch? Tell us rollout plan in other areas after Mumbai.

At this point, I have to get a few approvals (financial, security etc) so all I’m waiting for is to return to India: the plan then is to give India about 17 hours notice of the launch (well, it might actually be more like a week, since I do want to get a launch party organized).

Once Mumbai is up and running, we’re expecting to expand quickly in to other centres in Maharashtra and other states within quite a short timeframe (funding permitting, of course: this stuff ain’t exactly cheap!)

Q. What’s your take on broadband scenario of India, present and future?

India’s Broadband future is extremely bright – if only we can remove the barriers which are, in my view, holding it back.

Aside from regulatory issues, everyone seems to fight with everyone else, and it’s not in their best interests nor is it in the best interests of the consumer. Two major glaring things that need to be fixed: LLU (or at least agreements to use each other’s infrastructure) and Peering.

LLU (Local Loop Unbundling):

Even though we don’t really plan to use it, we would push for LLU in India because we think it would greatly improve the way things operate: no more cablewala issues and no more wondering if I can get service based on my address (the situation I had was, even though I wanted Airtel, and I could see Airtel fiber under the footpath less than 100m from my window, only Tata services my building).


I’m a big fan of peering. There can never be enough peering, but despite NIXI having been set up and operating, it’s terribly inefficient due to the stupid tariff structure: whoever decided that peering should be charged per GB should be taken out in to the street and have very bad things done to him. It is literally one of the worst ideas I’ve ever seen, because you simply can’t expect to maintain a healthy domestic peering ecosystem if the per GB charge is double that of my equivalent charges for International bandwidth. My bean-counters would surely prefer I sent the traffic to Singapore and back because although it’s less efficient and worse, it’s cheaper

In addition to this, you pay up to 3 lakhs per year for a 1Gbit/s port, but frankly, I’d be more than happy to pay 3 lakhs per month if I didn’t have to pay per GB, because if you do the math, at a 3:1 in:out ratio, that could cost me as much as 44 lakhs per month. In NZ, I pay less than NZ$500 (INR15k) per month – including transport – for 1Gbit/s with no traffic charges, and in Finland, peering is 250EUR/month for 1Gbit/s, or 1050EUR/month for 10Gbit/s including the membership fees.

My proposal to fix these problems:
Even if LLU doesn’t happen, my expectation is that we will open our fiber to other providers so that they can lease our last-mile fiber to provide higher speeds to customers, and/or perhaps form a bi-lateral agreement so that we can use their last-mile copper: perhaps as a “lite +” offering if we were to offer some plans based on DSL.

Because of the tariff structure, as far as we’re concerned, NIXI is a joke, and unless that tariff structure changes, broadband in India will continue to suffer. I’ve put the proposal out that we should form our own peering infrastructure and charge sane fees for interconnection – even something like Rs30k per month per 1Gbit/s port with no traffic charges: under a full load, this works out to under 10paise per GB – standard IX rules apply (in other words, you can’t send your traffic to networks not connected to the IX through the IX) and so forth.

There is a small organization in Sweden which is comprised of some NRIs which is trying to start up an alternative to NIXI, but they haven’t got very far yet, so we’re hoping that we’ll be able to work together to achieve this, because, peering will help in several ways. First of all, if it’s done at a reasonable cost as we’re proposing, that traffic doesn’t cost the ISP much. In essense, any ISP who chooses to peer with Hayai would more-or-less be included in the Hayai zone, and his customers would see (to some extent) similar benefits to what our customers do with the “Hayai Zone“.

Downloading from our caches and mirrors would be fast and inexpensive which reduces their overall expenditure on international bandwidth, transferring information between our customers and theirs would be faster (and again, cheaper), and it would allow new services to arise in India that currently couldn’t work very well – from cloud-based services to game servers (lower pings!) to locally hosted video streaming sites – and if some media company joins in, then that media company could offer a library of TV channels and/or movies for legal viewing at very low cost – a-la Netflix.

Of course, the challenge would be up to the millions of Indian entrepreneurs both in and out of India to come up with services to take advantage of this new eco-system, and I expect that we would also be able to bring a lot of India-central websites currently hosted in the USA back to India. Data centres in India are already technologically sufficient, they’re just limited by bandwidth and the fact that they’re quite expensive by comparison. Our hosting partner, E2E Networks (based in Delhi) is already trying to do just that.

This Article Was Written By: Rudradeep Biswas

Rudradeep Biswas - Senior Telecom Analyst

The happy guy RDB (stands for Rudradeep Biswas) has been writing for Telecomtalk since 2009, covering mobile operators, 3G, broadband, WiFi, 4G, LTE, telecom policies and what-not related to Indian telecom. He is by profession a doctor, did his MBBS from R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata.

{ 23 comments… add one }

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  • jdjain December 7, 2010 11:08 pm, 11:08 PM

    i was big fan of wimax since 2005 but after using it and saw it operation i can say it is just good for villages and remote area , but speed wise it can not on par with wireline broadband , so definitely i will look forward to Fiber optics , Britain and USA has just start a nation level rollout of fiber optic , so that in next 2 years people get atleast 1Gbps speed

    not possible even with 4G tech

  • Ganesh November 29, 2010 3:57 pm, 3:57 PM

    Wow! Thank you Matt, for such a wonderful insight! And thanks telecomtalk for publishing this!

  • TREMERIN DSOUZA November 29, 2010 8:57 am, 8:57 AM

    dear riju why does Bsnl favour kerala and punjab ? Because these states have large number of NRIs and Bsnl can have good income.Why does Bsnl always start implementing any new project or tarrif plans from these states while rest of india has been deprived of Bwa by my case i live in Mumbai where Mtnl operates and it does not even know that it has received Bwa spectrum till present they have no plans to launch either wimax or Lte network in near future even if they do launch Bwa service it will be twice as costly as Bsnl.

  • riju November 29, 2010 7:23 am, 7:23 AM


    bsnl providing unlimitted useage at RS.750/month. covering more than 40% of kerala. and plan to cover 70%

  • Anbu John Boban November 28, 2010 10:15 pm, 10:15 PM

    Great Interview and a marvelous work from Team TT .

  • Manoj Abhigyan November 28, 2010 8:20 pm, 8:20 PM

    dskushwaha :

    Manoj Abhigyan :

    dskushwaha :

    I think the merger of telecom circles into a single circle will limit the number of mobile connections.

    You are right friend but there is no any such proposal at present in telecom department as told by Sachin Pilot, the State Minister for Telecommunication, in Rajya Sabha. But it will take place within next one year if Kapil Sibal remains there.

    There are such proposals. Please Check:

    You are right but I said only what Sachin Pilot told to Rajya Sabha in answer to a question two days ago.

  • TREMERIN DSOUZA November 28, 2010 7:20 pm, 7:20 PM


  • dskushwaha November 28, 2010 7:16 pm, 7:16 PM

    Moreover MNP will also reduce number of mobile connections as number of connections not in use because of opting a better operator will not create a new connection.

  • dskushwaha November 28, 2010 7:12 pm, 7:12 PM

    Manoj Abhigyan :

    dskushwaha :

    I think the merger of telecom circles into a single circle will limit the number of mobile connections.

    You are right friend but there is no any such proposal at present in telecom department as told by Sachin Pilot, the State Minister for Telecommunication, in Rajya Sabha. But it will take place within next one year if Kapil Sibal remains there.

    There are such proposals. Please Check:

  • TREMERIN DSOUZA November 28, 2010 7:12 pm, 7:12 PM

    in future govt will auction more bwa licences so the competition will rise high and the demand of broadband plus internet will become possible without the fear of spectrum scarcity an lte td-lte is best suited for 2.3ghz spectrum which is auctioned by govt and has good efficiency to support large subscriber base and the users of wireless internet will surely be 50-60% of mobile users.

  • Adi November 28, 2010 6:55 pm, 6:55 PM

    I’m rooting for Hayai. I’m in awe of the patience and vision to shake things up especially in over regulated landscape that is Indian telco.

  • Manoj Abhigyan November 28, 2010 6:44 pm, 6:44 PM

    dskushwaha :

    I think the merger of telecom circles into a single circle will limit the number of mobile connections.

    You are right friend but there is no any such proposal at present in telecom department as told by Sachin Pilot, the State Minister for Telecommunication, in Rajya Sabha. But it will take place within next one year if Kapil Sibal remains there.

  • dskushwaha November 28, 2010 4:47 pm, 4:47 PM

    sahil :
    Today we have 700 millions mobile subscribers & around 10 million broadband subscribers, that is only 1% broadband penetration.

    The numbers “700 millions mobile subscribers” is not true, instead it should be “700 millions mobile subscription“. The actual number of mobile subscriber should be much less.
    People like me are bound to have multiple connections, because of following reason:
    1. I work in Assam and my home is in UP(E), I use prepaid connections and so I need atleast 3 connections for Assam, NE and UP(E) circles as there is no roaming between them (Roaming between NE and Assam circle started recently but in NE only BSNL has coverage in most of the places. Private players are limited to only big cities/ state capitals).
    2. I have to travell and work at places of India and have prepaid connections of W.B. Punjab and Delhi.

    In short I have 10 Mobile Connections (2 of them are not in use these days 2 I purchased and left because of poor coverage, thus total 6 working connections), one dual SIM GSM mobile and one CDMA mobile.

    I think the merger of telecom circles into a single circle will limit the number of my mobile connection to a maximum of two. (one for 3G data and other for cheap voice rates).

  • sahil November 28, 2010 3:46 pm, 3:46 PM


    I think BWA is definitely a competition but again it can’t facilitate the whole population of above 1 billion & growing. Today we have 700 millions mobile subscribers & around 10 million broadband subscribers, that is only 1% broadband penetration. Therefore there is a tremendous opportunity of growth in broadband.

    The spectrum availability in India is definately scarce & above all to think that the present 3 BWA licensees will be able to meet the whole demand & that too providing 10-20 mbps speed is definitely too much. Also at present LTE which have theoritacle 270mbps downlink capacity(100mbps in field trials) is still to mature & full scale production of its multimode devices(compatible with LTE,3g&2g) will be only possible till 2012 as at present they are too costly for normal consumers. LTE-Advanced is still very far from commercialisation.

    Also as per my knowledge what i have gathered surfing the net a particular LTE BaseStation can take a load 300 users using high speed access & By using 4 X 4 MIMO technolgy upto 1200 per BTS. One thing again of concern is that the lower frequency bands 450MHZ- 800 MHz are going to be required to achieve a better rural penetration becoz at current higher frequencies (2300 MHz& 2500MHz) auctioned in BWA more BTS will be required to give better coverage.

    As we all know the limitation of ADSL-2 & VDSL to be able to offer good speed only upto 5-6 Km from the POP, On the same time fibre will be a better option which is able to provide 10Gbps at current technologies with scope of further improvemets.

    So wireless definitely has a big role to play but the need of an adjacent Fibre Optic Network cannot be denied. We can take the example of the top 5 countries at present in terms of speed in world & they all are running on Fibre.

  • TREMERIN DSOUZA November 28, 2010 2:46 pm, 2:46 PM

    @Mathew Carley
    dear sir what plans you have for wireless? reliance has got bwa spectrum and everyone knows that it’s an price warrior and it can diminish wired internet as for fiber to reach nook and corner of india will take at least 7-8 years at maximum speed.while wireless tech are deployable easily and reliance has got unbundled spectrum so it can provide unlimited download without F.U.P without network congestion using spectrum recycling reliance will pose danger as wireless tech are affordable and portable (roam anywhere in india).it’s speed will be around 20-30 mbps(minimum) even if we consider lte-advanced is used with further future improvements.

  • sahil November 28, 2010 2:25 pm, 2:25 PM

    First of all I’d like to wish Good Luck to MC !!

    I hope, he finally gets all the clearances from various ministries who are sitting on his applications. Again it is such a awkward thing to know that where almost 99 ISPs having A-class license & hardly 15-20 of them seems visible even. Most of the ISP license holders on the DOT sites are those ISPs who don’t have their site running but it is still mentioned in the details on DOT site. While they are not clearing someone whose is willing to start the operations from the day of grant.

    What MC has pointed, the keys varaibles are definitely the ones which are major hurdle between we getting better speeds at present prices. Today when INDIA is having almost 20 TB/s or more international bandwidth while the demand is negligible & supply in excess still international bandwidth is 10 times costly compared to China & Europe. In 2008, India has used only 600 GB/s capacity only which is hardly 3% of total capacity.

    As the plans specially the unlimited ones priced on the based of GBs consumable on a particular line (for e.g. [Rs. 750 = 70gb on 512kbps line ]or [35-40gb on a 256 kbps * 10rs/gb(cost of international bandwidth to the ISP)= Rs. 400-500], so if the govt can take some step to force the 3 major International Bandwidth Supplier Airtel, Reliance & Tata, it can certainly make a good speed broadband afforadable to everyone.

    Peering is again a necessity which the dot & trai should take at first hand because almost 80-90% of our traffic goes to US & Europe, so peering will definitely help the ISPs to cut down on International Bandwidth cost.

    LTE & Wimax looks good in case of providing rural boradband but we must understand that the spectrum is scarce & it can’t handle the traffic when theno. of users will increase. Also in India the spectrum awarded to the telcos 5Mhz(FDD) for 3g & 20Mhz(TDD) for BWA is less than the international standards. Worldwide for wimax & LTE the standard is of 30 MHz block per operator.

    The goverment should plan for a longer period & invest in Fiber Optics as a fiber layed underground has lifetime of above 50 years which is very long, so ROI is much better & long lasting. Fiber to the home or town & then Wifi can be the better solution.

    I hope Mathew gets his venture going soon & being able to provide atleast some of us broadband lovers some decent offerings as today all of the ISPs except MTNL has gone insane with baseless FUPs.

    FUPs are accepatable only if they are made on the basis of the priced paid but not like airtel which offers 50gb for Rs. 1700 or TATA Docomo 3g which offers 15gb for 2000 bucks.

  • sri November 28, 2010 1:18 pm, 1:18 PM

    In India cable internet is limited to cities and major towns,rural areas are out of picture (execpt bsnl) and speeds are low and for fiber optic to reach nook and corner of India it will take years considering Indian geography and terrain wireless is best option for internet.Hope that reliance infotel uses TD-LTE and brings path breaking rates affordable cheap & speed to common man.

    We cant expect a great tariff from reliance guys, i dont think that they are different from others. Have ever noticed their broadband rates, the existing ones? And reliance is such a fool that asking us to enter username and password to browse internet.Internet is not just means of browsing. We cant use voip devices directly with reliance BB…. but infotel, i think it goes on similar mode becoz the same man behind the reliance communications previously ……..Time being BSNL is the right choice for us on tariff as well as speed. Airtel BB is also well at my place on speed and quality wise some time ago but dont know now.

  • Mathew Carley November 28, 2010 12:16 pm, 12:16 PM

    We know we can’t change NIXI’s tariff structure, nor are we planning to.
    Unfortunately, it seems that the guys in charge of NIXI, while they seem to understand the concept of peering, they don’t understand the pricing – and this is why myself and many of the people we’ve been discussing the idea with think that NIXI is nothing short of a failure.

    It’s been around for siunce 2003 and they’re still only up to a maximum of 10.5gbit/s of traffic exchange NATIONWIDE. STHIX in Stockholm has been around for only a few months and they’ve already hit 2Gbit/s of traffic exchange. I mention this because this is the organization I mentioned in the article.

    What we’re proposing is to essentially create a competing facility, and by pricing it as peering should be priced, we would hope that it becomes many times more popular than NIXI is, creating the kind of peering environment which is needed in India to benefit both our customers as well as the customers of other ISPs.

    As for cable Internet, that can be looked at two ways. Yes, it *currently* is limited to towns and cities, but it doesn’t need to be. There is fiber-optic cabling already going to pretty much every railway station in the country, which for us is a nice start.

    As I mentioned in the article, we do want to hit areas which basically have no competition, and we have a three-fold plan for tackling rural areas, which I haven’t mentioned in the article, partially because there are larger problems in rural areas than lack of broadband that would need to be tackled simultaneously.

    1. We are aware of the cabling problem both in cities and in rural areas, and the costs involved – so we are introducing “lite” services based on Wireless.

    The main problems I have with Wireless though, is that it is NOT very suitable for heavy users, nor does it offer the kinds speed that fiber does.

    So, for anyone that suggests that they might want to use something like Bittorrent would be informed that this product isn’t suitable for them (if for no other reason than the number of half-open connections can cause wireless base stations to crash which affects everybody).

    Wireless (whether it’s 3G, LTE or Wimax) is NOT a panacea to fix the broadband problem and would only fix the rural broadband problem in the short term.

    2. Some rural areas barely even have electricity, so our proposal there is to open public centres where people can come to use the internet.

    3. While I agree that it will take years to cover every nook and cranny of India, this isn’t a good reason not to start. As I’ve mentioned, there is already fiber all over the place, and the issue has been in India tackling the last-mile.

    Fortunately, because in most of the country the only competitor is BSNL, in many places it will be easy (relatively speaking) for us to come in and start building.

  • dskushwaha November 28, 2010 12:08 pm, 12:08 PM

    Rudradeep Biswas :
    At present, India enjoys cheapest tariff on mobile voice/sms,

    We come across again and again to such comments by various sources. Still Multinational Telcos find India a big market.
    India might have been enjoying cheapest tariff on mobile voice/sms in US$ terms but not in terms of share of Per Capita Income.

  • Rudradeep Biswas November 28, 2010 11:54 am, 11:54 AM

    At present, India enjoys cheapest tariff on mobile voice/sms, but broadband is stuck at 256kbps and tariff is not that cheap compared to its mobile market! More than 300 ISPs and few are offering services! I can’t get a 1 or 2Mbps unlimited without any FUP! :(

    Wireless broadband is certainly promising for Indian geo-socio-economical structure, in rural areas EVDO is the only way of broadband/high speed internet penetration! Apart from BSNL, none of pvt telcos(operating on CDMA) has showed interest in that! LTE could be a game changer, if it comes cheap! Wait for Infotel Broadband.

  • Mahmood Junaid November 28, 2010 11:43 am, 11:43 AM

    i too think that wireline broadband is too hard for starting… i think the future of india is on wireless broadband…

  • TREMERIN DSOUZA November 28, 2010 11:06 am, 11:06 AM

    In India cable internet is limited to cities and major towns,rural areas are out of picture (execpt bsnl) and speeds are low and for fiber optic to reach nook and corner of India it will take years considering Indian geography and terrain wireless is best option for internet.Hope that reliance infotel uses TD-LTE and brings path breaking rates affordable cheap & speed to common man.

  • sri November 28, 2010 10:27 am, 10:27 AM

    Best wishes MC!
    but you cannot change NIXI tariff structure. They are enjoying indians suffer and struggle with BB from the last few years and will continue in future too. If they worked well from the day 1, Gmail, Twitter, facebook ….would born in india long back. They just killed the indian innovations and continuing still.


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